Contact dermatitis is a common skin irritation due to exposure to a skin irritant. Contact dermatitis is not infectious.
More than 50% of adult Americans have had it at least once.
Causes include substances that come into direct contact with the skin and irritate it or cause skin allergies. The resin urushiol, produced by poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants, is a common cause. Contact with the substance may occur not only by touching the plants but also clothing or pets carrying the substance.
Other causes include clothing (wool), household cleaners, fragrances (e.g., in soaps, shampoos), the metal nickel, dyes, medicines, pesticides, and other chemicals.
Symptoms include dry, red, or blistered skin; itching; and mild discomfort. Intense itching and burning of the skin develop 24 to 36 hours after exposure, followed by weeping blisters and crusting and swelling of the skin. The liquid in the blisters is not infectious to others.
Breathing in or swallowing the substance can cause wheezing or nausea. Scratching the skin may lead to infection.
The health care provider will diagnose dermatitis from the history of exposure and by looking at the skin.
The best treatment is avoiding exposure. For example, avoid buying wool clothes and blankets if you are sensitive to wool products, and learn to recognize poison ivy. Wear gloves, long sleeves, and long pants to avoid contact with the plants and anything that has touched them.
Other treatments include topical or oral Anti-inflammatory drugs (steroids), antihistamines (for itching), and immunotherapy (desensitization) to minimize the reaction.
Anti-inflammatory steroids (such as prednisone) can be given in pill form, injection, or as creams and ointments.
Lotions, such as calamine, and oatmeal baths soothe oozing, blistery rashes and may be used as needed.
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